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Trial of experimental Ebola treatment publishes results

20 Apr, 2016

B0009935 Ebola virus structure, illustration

 

Results from a clinical trial of the experimental anti-Ebola drug TKM-130803 in Sierra Leone have shown that, at the dose given, the treatment did not improve survival in people with the disease.

The Wellcome-funded trial used a new design to compared results from 14 people who received the drug with historical records of Ebola patients, instead of using a placebo control group.

This design allowed the team to determine very quickly, in the midst of the ongoing epidemic, whether or not the drug was working. This meant that they could stop the trial immediately when it became clear the drug was not benefitting patients.

Professor Peter Horby from the University of Oxford, who led the study, said they now had a much clearer picture of the drug’s potential, adding: “We are obviously disappointed that it does not seem to offer a benefit to patients with severe Ebola but it remains to be seen if the drug will help those with less severe illness.”

Scientists from the University of Oxford and Sierra Leone worked with the humanitarian organisation GOAL Global, the World Health Organisation, and collaborators from a number of other institutions on the study, which took place last year at the GOAL Ebola Treatment Centre in Port Loko, Sierra Leone.

Read more about the trial results in the University of Oxford’s press release or see the full paper online in PLOS Medicine.

You can read about some of the other research we’ve supported on our Ebola funding page.

New funding to tackle urgent African health challenges

20 Apr, 2016

Professor Alex Ezeh, Executive Director of the African Population and Health Research Center in Kenya

 

Research teams in Ivory Coast, Kenya, Senegal and Uganda have been given a further £21 million through the DELTAS Africa initiative, which will support world class health research and help train the next generation of African scientists.

Four new research programmes will focus on the most urgent health challenges in the region, from infectious diseases to child health and wiping out malaria. All four will have a focus on career development by supporting women in science, creating opportunities for postgraduate study and providing mentorship.

The DELTAS Africa initiative was set up to address the ‘brain drain’ of the continent’s best scientists by promoting Africa-led development of research leaders. The new funding from the Wellcome Trust brings the total number of teams supported through DELTAS Africa to 11, a total investment of £60 million.

The five-year scheme is a partnership between Wellcome, the African Academy of Sciences’ Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa (AESA) and the UK Department for International Development.

AESA Director Dr Tom Kariuki called DELTAS “a massive vote of confidence in Africa’s improving R&D capabilities as captured in the mantra of an Africa Rising”.

Read more about the new programmes and find out about our DETAS scheme.

Wellcome Trust Research Round-up: 18.04.16

18 Apr, 2016

Our fortnightly round-up of news from our research community… 

Slowing down ageing

B0007686 Drosophila melanogaster headScientists have identified a new molecule that could be targeted to slow the ageing process, according to new Wellcome Trust-funded research published in Cell Reports.

Researchers found that fruit flies given low doses of lithium – a known mood stabiliser – lived on average 16% longer than those not given the drug. Higher doses, given during adulthood or later life reduced the flies’ lifespan.

How lithium works to stabilise mood in people is not well understood. This new study found that lithium delays ageing by blocking the action of a molecule called glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), and activating another called NRF-2, which is important for defending cells against damage. GSK-3 therefore presents an attractive target for drugs to control ageing.

Professor Dame Linda Partridge, Director of the UCL Institute of Healthy Ageing said: “Our aim is to identify ways to intervene in ageing, with the end goal of keeping us all healthier for longer and compressing the time at the end of life when we suffer from physical decline and diseases. This can be done by diet, genetics or drugs, which is why we want to identify promising drug targets. The response we’ve seen in flies to low doses of lithium is very encouraging and our next step is to look at targeting GSK-3 in more complex animals with the aim of eventually developing a drug regime to test in humans.”

Fever and pregnancy in Laos

Sanofi Pasteur Dengue NCNDCCBYInfectious diseases such as dengue, pyelonephritis and typhoid are a common cause of fever in pregnancy in Laos, and may be contributing to the high levels of maternal death seen in the region, according to a new study.

Laos has the highest levels of maternal mortality in mainland Southeast Asia and also a high incidence of infectious disease. But there has been little investigation into the impact of these illnesses during pregnancy.

Wellcome Trust-funded researchers at the Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit recruited 250 pregnant women with fever, which is often an indication of infection, to investigate the cause and impact of their high temperature. Of these women, 132 had a single infectious disease and 17 were diagnosed with mixed diseases. The most common single disease was dengue, followed by pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidney tissue), rickettsiosis disease and typhoid.

Twenty-eight of the women with dengue, rickettsiosis or typhoid also suffered from serious complications, including miscarriage and premature birth and death.

The researchers hope that this hospital based study will provide evidence of the cause of illnesses in pregnant women admitted to hospital, but stress that larger community cohort studies would help us learn more about fevers and their impact on pregnancy.

This research is published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.

Genetic links to neuroticism

B0000545 Comparitive DNA profiles of 14 peopleWellcome Trust-funded researchers have identified nine new gene-associations that can be linked to neuroticism according to a new study published in Molecular Psychiatry.

Neuroticism is a personality trait heavily associated with mental illness and anxiety, as well as physical conditions such as obesity and even heart disease. In the largest ever study of a personality trait, the University of Glasgow researchers tested 100,000 people, including individuals from UK Biobank, to identify genes associated with neuroticism.

The exact DNA changes responsible are still to be identified, but molecules thought to be involved in neuroticism already have important roles in the body’s response to stress and the function of glutamate, an important chemical involved in a range of psychiatric disorders. Researchers believe that the existence of these gene associations could indicate a person’s predisposition to the personality trait.

Dr Raliza Stoyanova, Neuroscience & Mental Health Senior Portfolio Developer at the Wellcome Trust, said: “By combining a number of very large studies, including UK Biobank, the researchers have identified new genetic associations for neuroticism – one of the five fundamental personality traits present in all of us. It will be important for future work to uncover how these genetic links affect brain function, and to pin down whether they increase someone’s chance of developing clinical depression.”

Rhythm of the night

FP0000071FE03 Baby, sleepingMagnesium is essential for helping us to adapt to the rhythms of day and night, according to new research published in Nature.

Wellcome-funded researchers investigated how this nutrient, found in many everyday foods, helps to control how cells keep their own form of time to cope with environmental cycles. Researchers measured magnesium levels in human cells, algae and fungi, and observed the levels rising and falling in a daily cycle. These magnesium cycles also impacted metabolism in cells, controlling when they converted food into fuel.

The researchers believe this discovery at the cell level will be linked to circadian rhythms of the whole body and could offer insights into the development of treatments scheduled to specific times of the day.

Dr John O’Neill from the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge said: “Although the clinical relevance of magnesium in various tissues is beginning to garner more attention, how magnesium regulates our body’s internal clock and metabolism has simply not been considered before. The new discovery could lead to a whole range of benefits spanning human health to agricultural productivity.”

Other Wellcome Trust research news

Wellcome Trust funded researchers from the University of Edinburgh have mapped thousands of genetic mutations in yeast to identify how these can affect a cell’s chances of survival. It is the first time scientists have been able to measure the effects of every possible combination of mutations in a gene and the technique could help studies into the effects of mutations that lead to diseases in humans. This research is published in Science.

Cancer cells are able to ‘persuade’ healthy cells around them into helping the disease to grow and spread, according to new research published in Cell. Wellcome Trust-funded researchers investigated the KRAS gene, the most commonly mutated gene in cancers, and found that it is able to influence healthy cells to ‘help’ the cancer by encouraging growth. You can see a video of how this process works here.

In other news

Ubiobank.pngK Biobank has launched the world’s biggest body scanning project to shed new light on major diseases. Funded by the Wellcome Trust, MRC and BHF, the £40m project will collate scans of the internal organs of 100,000 current Biobank participants. Dr Sara Marshall, Head of Clinical Research at the Wellcome Trust, said: “Each day we’re discovering more and more about how genetics and lifestyle play a part in the onset and development of diseases, but this extra piece of the puzzle – seeing physical changes even before symptoms develop – will give us a completely new perspective on how we can prevent and treat them.”

Congratulations to Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow, and Director of the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Professor Karl Friston who has won the Charles L. Branch BrainHealth Award. The award, set up in 2010 to honour neurosurgeon Dr Branch, recognises pioneering neuroscientists whose innovations have made a tremendous contribution to the area of brain research.

The results of the third wave of the Wellcome Trust Monitor were announced last week. The survey of 1,500 adults in the UK tracks the public’s understanding and attitudes to science and medical research. You can read a round-up of the main results in a previous post on this blog and see the full report on our website.

Image credits: (from top to bottom) MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, Wellcome Images; Dengue fever Sanofi Pasteur via Flickr, CC-BY-NC-ND; Sue Moberly, Wellcome Images; Fiona Pragoff, Wellcome Images; Jimmy Bell, University of Westminster and AMRA

Five promising mental health interventions in low and middle income countries

16 Apr, 2016
freindshiip bench

Credit: Kings College London

Diagnosing and treating mental health conditions is a huge challenge in low and middle income countries, where resources are scarce. Dr Dixon Chibanda is a Wellcome researcher at the University of Zimbabwe, and has a DELTAS Africa award to tackle the gap in provision for mental health disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Here he talks us through five cost-effective projects he thinks could have a big impact…

More than 10% of the total disease burden in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) is due to mental health disorders, yet they receive less than 1% of many of these countries’ health budgets. A striking example of this is in Zimbabwe, where only 12 psychiatrists serve a national population of 15.3 million.

Considering this huge under-investment, a key question is how to provide support for people suffering from mental ill health when resources are scarce.

Dixon quote

These five collaborative, low-cost care packages – delivered by lay people who are trained and supervised by professionals – all have the potential to close the treatment gap, and improve the mental health of hundreds of thousands of people.

  1. TEAM project

In Kenya the Africa Mental Health Foundation’s TEAM project enlisted African traditional healers, faith healers and community health workers to detect mental illness, and refer cases to clinicians. Referrals of people suspected of having mental illness rose from zero to 1,593. 494 went on to be clinically diagnosed with a mental health disorder.

The Government of Makueni County has now committed to scale up the project, from two to 20 facilities. They anticipate identifying 6,000 more suspected cases of mental illness, and for 2,000 people to be diagnosed within the year.

  1. Thinking Healthy Programme

In rural Pakistan Wellcome helped to fund the Thinking Healthy Programme, which screened 4,000 pregnant women and identified 903 as having perinatal depression. 42 Community Health Workers were trained to deliver 16 sessions of an evidence based “talking therapy” until a year after their babies were born.

The intervention cost led to recovery in three-quarters of women treated, and cost less than £7 per woman each year.

  1. MANAS

In Goa Wellcome funded MANAshanti Sudhar Shodh (MANAS), led by Professor Vikram Patel, which trained non-specialist health workers to deliver psychosocial interventions, including psychoeducation, yoga and interpersonal therapy.

They ran a trial of 2,796 people with common mental disorders and found 65.9% of those who were treated with a collaborative care approach, including psychosocial interventions,  recovered after 6 months, compared to just 42.5% in the control group.

  1. Atmiyata

In the Nashik district of India the Atmiyata programme is training 15,000 people from self-help groups and farmers clubs, alongside doctors and social workers, to work together to identify mental illness cases in the community.

The people trained receive smartphones which help them identify mental health problems, and are uploaded with videos, including a myth-busting Q&A with a psychiatrist in the local language.

  1. Friendship Bench
FB2

Credit: Kings College London

In Zimbabwe benches have been placed outside health clinics, which people visit for treatment of all kinds of conditions including HIV and AIDS. Lay health workers, known as Golden Ladies or ‘Grandmothers’, are trained to deliver low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy to anyone referred to the benches by clinicians.

To date over 15,000 people have used the Friendship bench. The project has already shown promising results, and is being scaled up to 60 clinics in the 3 cities, where it’s hoped up to 50,000 people will have access.

WHO and World Bank’s recent ‘Out of the Shadows: Making Mental Health a Global Development Priority’ event made a strong case for mental health to move up the global development agenda. Now is the time for LAMIC governments to invest in scaling up cost-efficient, highly effective interventions. The cost of inaction is just too high.

Image of the week: Full body fat scan

15 Apr, 2016

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Have you ever wondered where fat is lurking in your body? This scan of fat distribution reveals all. 100,000 of these scans will be carried out between now and 2020 as part of an ambitious new study at UK Biobank.

As well as fat, they’ll also be collecting scans of the brain, heart, bones and carotid arteries of participants. It will create the biggest collection of scans of internal organs, and transform the way scientists study a wide range of diseases, including dementia, arthritis, cancer, heart attacks and strokes.

All of these scans, along with the vast amount of data UK Biobank already hold on participants, will create a one-of-a-kind resource for researchers. For the last ten years UK Biobank has gathered huge quantities of data on its 500,000 participants – including their lifestyle, weight, height, diet, physical activity and cognitive function, as well as genetic data from blood samples. Linkage to a wide range of health records is also under way, including data from general practices.

With all of this data researchers can begin to answer intriguing questions like ‘does having a lot of abdominal fat affect someone’s chances of developing dementia?’ The imaging will also help doctors understand risk factors that could help prevent diseases, so that one day earlier targeted treatment, or changes in lifestyle, could prevent major diseases from ever happening.

Image credit: Jimmy Bell, University of Westminster and AMRA

The ethics of Zika trials in pregnancy

14 Apr, 2016

W0039956 Aedes aegypti, adult mosquito

Exploring the ethics of involving pregnant women in clinical trials for diagnostic tests, treatments and vaccines for Zika virus is one of five new research projects funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Department for International Development as part of the UK’s response to the outbreak.

Pregnant women are thought to be especially vulnerable to Zika because of the reported link to fetal abnormalities, yet this group is often automatically excluded from medical research because of safety concerns.

Now, researchers at John Hopkins University, USA will devise rapid guidelines for carrying out ethically responsible studies with pregnant women during Zika and other global health emergencies. This guidance is needed to ensure that any new medicines that are developed, such as a Zika vaccine, are made available to those most at risk from the virus.

Other scientists to receive funding include:

  • Professor Ricardo Ximenes (Instituto de Apoio à Universidade de Pernambuco, Brazil) will investigate the suspected link between Zika and microcephaly in a cohort of mothers and one of pregnant women.
  • Professor Hugh Willison (University of Glasgow) will investigate possible biological processes underlying the link between Zika and the serious neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome.
  • Professor Gavin Screaton (Imperial College London) will investigate the body’s antibody response to Zika, which could help to develop better diagnostics and new vaccines against the virus.

The latest projects bring Wellcome’s total commitment to Zika research to around £2.8m. Last month, we announced support for 26 proposals funded jointly with the Medical Research Council through their Zika Rapid Response Initiative.

Find out more

The ethics of including pregnant women in clinical trials are explored in more detail in this recent piece from Mosaic.

Our previous news story outlines some of the other work underway to tackle the epidemic.

The Wellcome Trust blog has a series of Q&As with experts on mapping, climate and medical anthropology. These are available in English and Spanish.

Image of the Week: Socialising the Genome

8 Apr, 2016

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Genomics is fast becoming part of everyday healthcare, with DNA already being used to help predict and manage conditions such as cancer and heart disease. But how comfortable does the everyday person feel when striking up a conversation about genomics? And do we understand what it means for us and our health?

The UK has a rich history of genomics research. It played a leading role in sequencing the very first whole human genome in 2000 and is now leading the world’s largest sequencing project, the ‘100,000 Genomes Project.’

The outcomes of this research will have huge implications for research, medicine, and our health. However, the last Wellcome Trust Monitor survey found that only 12% of the population would say they had a good understanding of what a genome is.

A new project, funded by the Wellcome Trust, Genomics England and the Sanger Institute, hopes to address this by sparking new conversations about a subject that might be totally alien to some people. Socialising the Genome aims to bring genomics out of the lab and into dinner table conversations, breaking apart the often-dense scientific language.

The team, led by Dr Anna Middleton, has created a series of short animations based on research with the British public. They cover some of the common misconceptions associated with the science, such as the belief that genomics has no impact on most people’s lives.

Now they want to know what the public think. Are the ideas in the animations likable? Do they resonate? But, most importantly, are they sharable and could they be used as a starter for a conversation?

View the animations and take part in the research at genetube.org

How to turn the tide on the growing problem of diabetes

7 Apr, 2016

diabetes.jpg

With Ebola and Zika grabbing so many headlines these days, it may come as a surprise that the biggest global health crisis affecting developing nations is not caused by yet another rare virus we had never heard of, or an exotic tropical parasite, but rather something far too familiar to us all – diabetes. 

The condition is the focus of this year‘s World Health Day – a campaign that aims to increase awareness about the rise of diabetes and the staggering burden it places on health systems, as well as triggering a set of actions to tackle it. Wellcome Trust Strategic Partnerships Manager Marta Tufet takes us through the recent research that has revealed the true scale of the crisis…

Once a disease affecting mainly richer nations, type 2 diabetes has risen exponentially in the past two decades in parallel to the obesity epidemic, with more than 80% of diabetes deaths now occurring in low and middle income countries. This dramatic increase of diabetes in the developing world is happening as these countries are struggling to tackle existing and emerging infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, Ebola and Zika. Needless to say that this double burden of disease imposes a huge economic strain on health systems, individuals and their families. It also threatens to compromise many of the significant national and international efforts made in the past few decades to reduce the infectious disease burden in these regions.

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Changes in diabetes prevalence for men aged 18+ between 1980 and 2014

A new study published in The Lancet, supported by Wellcome and led by Professor Majid Ezzati of Imperial College London, has estimated that the cost of diabetes worldwide is $825 billion a year, with half of all cases coming from China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and USA. Published in The Lancet, this research follows a previous study from the team looking at the global change in BMI trends. The global diabetes epidemic seems to be driven largely by a combination of social and economic factors such as rapid urbanisation, greater consumption of fatty foods and increasingly sedentary lifestyles.

Obesity is the greatest risk factor for diabetes, and the obesity epidemic too is soaring out of control. A recent report from the same Imperial research group showed that more people in the world now overweight than underweight. That study also found that between 1975 and 2014, the global population’s BMI increased at a rate which correlates with every person becoming on average 1.5kg heavier each decade.

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The number of women aged 18+ with diabetes has risen to over 200 million in 2014, equivalent to 7.9% of the global population

Research is increasingly demonstrating that diabetes can largely be prevented through healthier lifestyles and diet. However, translating this evidence into policy and practice is not an easy feat and will require significant reform of public health policies, health systems, and changes to the food and built environment.

mosaic gym

Community gyms in Brazil. Credit: Thomas Slater

Wellcome has supported a number of efforts towards increasing this evidence base and to translate it into policy and practice:

  • In Brazil, Wellcome Trust Investigator Dr Pedro Hallal is investigating links between physical exercise and lifelong health. His research is directly helping to drive government policy in Brazil, with the introduction of community ’health gyms’ which are already demonstrating impact.
  • In the UK, the Centre for Diet and Activity Research led by Professor Nick Wareham and supported by Wellcome through the UK Clinical Research Collaboration is contributing evidence on the wider factors that influence diet and physical activity related behaviours, developing and evaluating interventions and helping shape practice and policy around these.  
  • In China, with support from multiple funders, including Wellcome and the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, the Kadoorie Biobank led by Professor Zhengming Chen is collecting health data on half a million healthy adults in a prospective cohort study to investigate genetic and environmental causes of chronic diseases developed later in life, including diabetes.

Other Wellcome Trust initiatives such as Our Planet our Health, the Joint Health Systems Research Initiative and the Joint Global Health Trials Initiative, provide regular funding opportunities for researchers to address such matters.

All of these schemes have a strong emphasis on collaboration. If we are to beat diabetes, in line with calls from the WHO and others, researchers and funders must work together with governments, civil society, private sector, the public and media to develop new ways of preventing, diagnosing, treating and caring for people with diabetes.

Map and graph courtesy of NCD-RisC. For all data visualizations from the obesity and diabetes study please visit their website

Wellcome Trust Research Round-up: 04.04.16

4 Apr, 2016

Our fortnightly round-up of news from the Wellcome Trust research community.

An apple a day

B0007586 Vitamin C

Increasing the amount of fruit and vegetables we eat may significantly reduce the progression of cataracts, a common condition affecting vision.

In a 10-year study that tracked 324 pairs of twins, Wellcome Trust-funded researchers found that a higher intake of vitamin C was associated with a 33% reduction in the risk of cataract progression.

Cataracts form when the lens in the eye becomes oxidised over time, resulting in cloudy eyes. The condition is often associated with ageing, and surgeons perform over 300,000 procedures a year to replace damaged lenses.

Scientists tracked the diets of the twins throughout the study and analysed photographs of their eyes for signs of cataracts.

The fluid that baths our eyes, preventing oxidation is high in vitamin C, and researchers believe that increasing dietary intake of this vitamin may protect the lens by increasing the levels present in this fluid.

The findings, published in Ophthalmology, suggest a greater role for environmental factors rather than genetic factors in cataracts.

Professor Chris Hammond from Kings College London said: “The findings of this study could have significant impact, particularly for the ageing population globally by suggesting that simple dietary changes such as increased intake of fruit and vegetables as part of a healthier diet could help protect them from cataracts.”

Understanding chromosomal abnormalities

B0000046 Mouse embryo confocal

Early embryos with genetic abnormalities may still be capable of developing into healthy babies according to new research in mice, published in Nature Communications.

Chromosome abnormalities can cause a range of developmental disorders, including Down’s syndrome, with babies born to older mothers being especially at risk. Currently, expectant mothers are offered genetic testing to detect abnormal placental cells, but geneticists have limited understanding of the fate of embryos with these abnormalities.

Wellcome Trust-funded researchers from the University of Cambridge used mouse models to investigate the fate of embryos with an unusual number of chromosomes (instead of the normal 23 pairs) in some of the cells of the placenta. They found that mouse embryos with a mix of half normal and half abnormal cells developed into fully healthy embryos with all normal cells. The researchers observed that the abnormal cells were killed through programmed cell death, or apoptosis, to remove all cells with chromosome abnormalities.

“The embryo has an amazing ability to correct itself,” explains Professor Zernicka-Goetz. “We found that even when half of the cells in the early stage embryo are abnormal, the embryo can fully repair itself. If this is the case in humans, too, it will mean that even when early indications suggest a child might have a birth defect because there are some, but importantly not all abnormal cells in its embryonic body, this isn’t necessarily the case.”

Blocked up immune cells

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Smoking can cause our immune cells to get ‘clogged up’, increasing the risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB) and making the infection worse.

In a new study published in Cell, Wellcome Trust-funded researchers used zebrafish to study a type of immune cell called a macrophage. These specialised cells are our body’s first line of defence against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, engulfing the bacteria and destroying it using enzymes.

As well as destroying bacteria, macrophages also play a key role the body’s ‘housekeeping’ by recycling and removing unwanted material. It is this function that, when disrupted, can cause them to get ‘clogged up.’

The team studied genetic variants associated with increased risk of TB, identifying a variant that can prevent the cell’s housekeeping function. Without this essential activity, macrophages became large and slow, and were unable to move around to destroy bacteria.

Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow Professor Lalita Ramakrishnan from the University of Cambridge said: “Macrophages act a bit like vacuum cleaners, hoovering up debris and unwanted material within the body, including the billions of cells that die each day as part of natural turnover. But the defective macrophages are unable to recycle this debris and get clogged up, growing bigger and fatter and less able to move around and clear up other material.”

When the researchers examined the macrophages of smokers, they found that they were blocked with smoke particles which also caused them to be large and slow. The findings explain why smoking increases the risk of getting TB, because smoke particles also prevent macrophages from effectively removing the TB bacterium, in a similar way to those cells with the disrupted housekeeping function.

Other Wellcome Trust research news

Researchers at the Wellcome Trust-funded Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit are studying the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of different tests to diagnose non-malarial fevers in rural settings. They found that testing for the biological markers of inflammation, rather than specific pathogens, gave a better indication of which patients required antibiotics. The team hope the results will inform a more robust approach to managing antibiotic use in rural settings to help slow the spread of drug resistance. This research was published in PLOS ONE.

Researchers from the Wellcome-Trust funded Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit and the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Vietnam have recommended a more population-based approach to the prevention of drug resistance in malaria. In an article in PLOS Medicine, the researchers called for national and international health policy action to preserve the effectiveness of the drug artemisinin for as long as possible.

In other news

Congratulations to Professors Peter Horby and Heiman Wertheim who were awarded the Vietnam Ministry of Health’s Medal for the People’s Health. Both Professors are previous directors of the Wellcome Trust-funded Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hanoi and the medal recognises their major contribution to health in Vietnam.

Image credits: (from top to bottom) Kevin Mackenzie, University of Aberdeen. Wellcome Images; Dr David Becker. Wellcome Images; Macrophage engulfing Tuberculosis bacteria via Flickr CC-BY-NC-ND

Image of the Week: Would like to meet

1 Apr, 2016

anna1

This week museums across the world have been taking part in #MuseumWeek. Unfolding across social media platforms, the week celebrates all aspects of art and culture to connect museums with their visitors and each other.  Each day has had a theme, from architecture and heritage, to museum secrets and innovation.

Located next to the Wellcome Trust on Euston Road, Wellcome Collection is a free destination exploring the connections between medicine, life and art in the past, present and future. Via their own blog, Wellcome Collection often shares behind the scenes insights into the curious collections and life at the museum. To celebrate #MuseumWeek, we re-publish an article from a series entitled ‘Would like to meet’ that finds out more about the Visitor Experience Assistants who, aside from invigilating the galleries, write and provide tours and are a wealth of knowledge for visitors.

Here, Daniela Vasco introduces Anna Firbank, one of our Visitor Experience Assistant team members…

Time to meet my colleague, Anna. I remember when she started in March last year and I always see her in a lively mood!

Anna is from the seaside town of Brighton, which she loves. She studied neuroscience at university, but she refuses to call herself an expert in the subject. Despite her modesty, you’ll find she is the best person in the team to discuss the complexities of the human brain. Ann Veronica Janssens’ recent ‘yellowbluepink‘, the coloured mist installation part of ‘States of Mind’, was a good opportunity for her to further explore the subject of perception and sensory experience with visitors.

Anna is especially excited about the second part of ‘States of Mind: Tracing the edges of consciousness‘. She says “consciousness is an immediately fascinating subject that gives no easy answers, so I’m looking forward to discussing it with visitors.” Organising the Perspective Tours series for States of Mind is Anna’s big project at the moment: “I am currently starting to research speakers who will have an interesting take on the gallery.” She’s especially happy if there are muffins in the office to help immerse herself in her research.

Anna cycles everywhere. She is a campaigner for global sustainability and when she is not working she might well be blogging about the environment. She quite likes cycling down Euston Road: “It feels very London-y with all the historical ornate buildings and tree lined avenues.” Unsurprisingly, the pollution levels are far too high for her liking!

If you want to have a look at the Anna’s current favourite object in Wellcome Collection, go to the Reading Room on Level 2 and find the piece by the artist Helen Pynor called Liquid Ground. She describes it as “an underwater photograph that depicts a floating dress and displaced internal organs on its side. Which sounds really macabre and, to be fair, it is inspired by tales of drowning in the Thames. But I find it really peaceful and the turquoise backdrop is full of life.” She also finds this piece an interesting reflection on our disassociation with our own visceral, watery interiors. “Our tendency to avoid confronting the fact that we’re not hollow souls, we’re bodies filled with… stuff.”

You can read the full series of ‘WLTM’ articles on the Wellcome Collection blog. To find out more about #MuseumWeek, follow the hashtag or visit their website.

International Research Scholars: a new way of supporting research outside the UK

29 Mar, 2016

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Today the Wellcome Trust, in partnership with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, launches a new program for early career scientists who have trained in the UK or US but want to continue their research in country outside the G7. The International Research Scholar program is one of many ways that Wellcome supports early career researchers working outside the UK, as Anne-Marie Coriat, Head of Research Careers at the Wellcome Trust explains…

When Gordon A. Awandare was a student at the University of Ghana, he made a decision to go to the United States to do his PhD. For promising young scientists in lower and middle income countries, moving abroad to continue their training is common and understandable. What makes Gordon stand out is that after completing his PhD at the University of Pittsburgh he returned to Ghana to set up his own lab, thanks to initial support from the National Institutes of Health and the Royal Society, and later funding from the World Bank and a DELTAS Africa award. He’s now recognised as an outstanding malaria researcher and recently won the Royal Society’s early career scientist award.

Gordon Awandare

Gordon A. Awandare

For every Gordon there are many more researchers who go to the UK or US for further scientific training and stay for the remainder of their careers. There are many reasons for this, but important contributory factors are fewer career opportunities and unclear career structures for scientists in many non-G7 countries. The resulting ‘brain-drain’ is a problem because researchers have a crucial part to play in addressing the health issues in the country they live in and without embedded in-country research the goal of better health for everyone is harder to reach

However, as most PhD students know, science is a competitive business and establishing your own lab is difficult – whether you’re in Bristol, Buenos Aires or Beijing. But we recognise that for most scientists  the early stages of an independent career are a time of maximum creativity and productivity and, like other funders, Wellcome have prioritised early career funding for scientists establishing independent laboratories.

At Wellcome, we also have a long track history of funding researchers at all career stages outside the UK. We have five successful overseas programmes across Africa and Southeast Asia, we have recently been involved in setting up the Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in Africa (AESA) to bring the centre of gravity for major research funding decisions to Africa, and we support clinical fellows across the world.

But there is always scope to do more and explore how we might address this problem in different ways and with others who share our goals.

That is why we have decided, with our partners the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Gates Foundation and the Gulbekian Foundation, to trial a new International Research Scholarship program for researchers trained in the UK and US who want to set up an independent research lab.

Between us we hope to fund up to 50 scholars, 15 of whom will be Wellcome funded. We’re looking for applications from early career researchers in any area of basic biological, biomedical and public health research including chemistry, physics, computer science, and engineering where they relate to biology or medicine.

These scholars will be a small part of a larger focus that Wellcome has on providing opportunities and support to researchers in lower and middle income countries. We are continually thinking about how we can work together with our partners towards a common aim of better health around the world. Identifying excellent researchers who will benefit from the scholars program is another step along that road.

For more information about the International Research Scholars and eligibility please visit the funding pages on the Wellcome Trust website or the Howard Hughes Medical Institute website.

As ever, we welcome informal feedback. If you have any questions please email sciencegrants@wellcome.ac.uk

Image of the Week: A good egg?

25 Mar, 2016

L0013528 A new born child stepping out of a broken egg Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org A new born child stepping out of a broken egg Engraving Histoire des accouchements chez tous les peuples Gustave-Joseph Alphonse Witkowski Published: 1889 Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

With Easter celebrations getting underway today, we’re bound to see more than a few eggs around. Most are likely to be of a chocolate variety, rather than the type portrayed here in our Image of the Week.

This rather startling image of a baby emerging from its ‘shell’ is an engraving that features in a book titled ‘Histoire des accouchements chez tous les peuples’ (History of births among all people). Published in 1887, the book is described as a ‘complete dogmatic study of delivery’ and includes literary stories and anecdotes of birthing experiences dating from antiquity to what was then the present day.

One peculiar story described in the book features a French woman who supposedly gave birth to two eggs. They were taken to the Academy of Science in Paris and later hatched to reveal two pigeon chicks.

Eggs have been a traditional part of Easter celebrations since before the Middle Ages and are symbolic of new life. Early Easter eggs may have been a decorated duck or hens’ egg, with France and Germany leading the move towards the modern decorative chocolate eggs we know today in the early 19th century.

We hope you all have a nice break, don’t forget that Wellcome Collection is open as usual this weekend, including Bank Holiday Monday.

Image credit: A new born child stepping out of a broken egg; Wellcome Library, London

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